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INTO THE FIRE 走进火中的世界

作者:Gerry King 杰瑞·金 来源: 发布时间:2017-12-21

 

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    本文作者为澳大利亚玻璃艺术家Gerry King,Gerry King于2016年受邀参加了第五届中国(博山)琉璃文化艺术节,并作为特约讲师为当地的陶琉从业者举办了中国玻璃(琉璃)艺术高端学术讲座,艺术节期间参观走访了诸多博山琉璃及玻璃企业,他对博山琉璃文化以及其中几家优秀的骨干企业留下了深刻印象,因此Gerry King在本文中使用大篇幅来表达他对博山玻璃、琉璃的真切感受。 

 

 

INTO THE FIRE

 

AN ESSAY BY Dr. Gerry King

 

 

Spectators marvel at demonstrations of flameworked glass, entranced by the brilliance of the flame, the mesmerising constant revolution of the piece, the stretching, the molten glow of the glass essential

to fully join two pieces and occasionally, the maker using his/her mouth to blow directly into the glass to expand a bubble. Surely there must be for the flame worker as much an attraction to the flame as to the glass, a sense of defying nature, tantamount to being a magician or alchemist.

 

Flame working is variously known as lamp or bench working in accordance with progression in its technology. Continually furthered by Australian and New Zealand artists it is an advancing field, being worked in unison with other glass techniques and other materials. Their works, solid or hollow, vessel or figure, clear or coloured are testament to the high level of skill required to work between the parameters of too hot or too cold, too fast or too slow, too soon or too late. The skills are complex and hard won. The flameworker must continually compensate for gravity as the heat of the flame softens the glass. The intensity of the flame is varied, the glass moved to hotter or cooler areas as necessary and moved away from the flame when the desired level of softening is achieved. Like a circus performer juggling while on a tight rope the flameworker must simultaneously coordinate in several ways without assistance. He/she normally works alone, most commonly providing the continual rotation without a mechanical aid. As with all exceptionally skilled makers the act tends to look effortless, graceful and inevitable. The consummate skill is veiled by the ease with which it is applied.

 

Artist Cas Davey at work.

          Stop the Trade by Alistair Mead.

 

Does this great skill lead to art? Look beyond the skill; look at the image, look at the unique meaning imbued into the object as the artist marries glass, that most magical material with the caress of the tantalizing but potentially ruinous flame. Though it might not seem so to the student, when making a glass artwork with a flame the easier part is mastering the skill. Expertise in flame working is earned with frequent and repetitious practice, and understanding of the material, the really tricky part is to ‘get the art into the glass’. This is not to deny the need for adroitness, persistence and the capacity to perceive minute differences in movement as the glass is subjected to the pull of gravity and the allure of the flame. Expertise in making art is won by learning to cultivate the serendipitous, to recognise the addition, subtraction or alteration which complements the aesthetic scenario before that scenario is fully conceived. An artwork cannot be fully understood by the artist before it is finished.

 

Think of art as a pregnancy. There are precise requirements but conception doesn’t depend upon training and skill. Art, like a child takes its own path to maturation, nurtured but not entirely predictable. Skill alone does not seduce an artwork from the canvas, from the block of stone, from the flame. The parent may predict some characteristics of the child but others will develop in the course of the gestation.

 

The artist will have an initial plan but an artwork is discovered in the making. As Napoleon was once known to say when choosing a commander for the next battle, ‘I know he’s a good General, but is he lucky?’ The General, like the artist needs more than skill. The leap from artisan to artist necessitates a sensitivity denied to many, the capability to impregnate an image with an intellectual content beyond the pictorial elements of the composition. As a story is more than a collection of words an artwork is more than its compositional elements. It contains subject that in some sense can be read as a story can be read. [Given that there isn’t a universally agreed definition of art I offer the foregoing as satisfying the most immediate requirements of describing the essential difference between an image or form that is an artwork and another that is not an artwork.]

 

In acknowledging that skill isn’t art, flame worked glass or indeed any use of contemporary glass is not alone. It is so with all art media, skill to represent the subject does not alone make a painter an artist. While skill is of course most commonly utilized in fabricating an artwork and indeed many artists have the highest level of ability to manipulate their medium, skill and intention are not criteria by which an artwork can be defined or recognised. Undeniably, skill is frequently employed by the artist and is no more evident than in the artworks of master flameworkers who recurrently labour within the grasp of disaster, manoeuvring the glass as hot as is possible, continually twisting and turning the piece to keep it from becoming a victim of the flame as a moth may be destroyed by that to which it is attracted.

 

Yet skill alone will never make a work of art and art will never be entirely dependent upon skill. The 20th Century exposed Western art to artists removed from the skills of the great European painters of earlier times. Franz Kline used a house broom to sweep the paint onto the canvas, Jackson Pollock flicked and splashed paint and Picasso outsourced the skill component to a potter who made the forms that the artist then pushed, pulled and painted. This is not to suggest that an artwork is likely to be made at the flame without skill. While conceivably there could be an unskilled flameworker producing a work of art it is improbable for the dictates of the material are such that consummate ability to control the glass more ordinarily leads to the opportunity to imagine and the opportunity to make an artwork. Yet the making of an artwork is in the mind, not in manual dexterity.

 

Neither is this to suggest that all exhibited works are intended or destined to become art. Many are works of craft, finely conceived and immaculately wrought. The basis of the merit of these works is that they are executed with the highest quality of crafting rather than imbued with subject matter. Despite the

                                                                                                                                          

  Nepenthes by Christian Arnold.

Mare of the Rainforest by Raymond Mifsud.

 

seemingly endless ‘art/craft wars’ lingering from the 1960’s there can be mutual respect conferred by the artist and the craftsperson. Indeed the one individual often enacts both roles. Not infrequently, craft works underpin the financial viability of makers while creating artworks fertilizes their practice. There is at times an inferred hierarchy ranking craft lower than art, sometimes with design somewhere in between. More logically, it can be recognised that each has its value and each its own zenith.

 

Flame working is an ancient technique, older than is recorded but represented in any inventory of the great glass works from ancient times until the present. Current practice is to use a burner fuelled by Liquid Petroleum Gas enhanced with a supply of oxygen for borosilicate glass, or for soft glass LPG and air. For small pieces or for silica glass LPG and hydrogen are used. The earliest technology was likely to have been a fire, perhaps controlled by a cone shaped ceramic chimney that focused the flame at a work area and drew air from the bottom to increase the temperature. This is thought to be the method utilized by Egyptian bead makers around 3,000 BCE. A similar apparatus had been in use in Northern Africa and Japan up to 2,000 years ago and flame worked beads were known in the Roman era. From the 14th Century flame working has been utilised extensively in Murano alongside furnace working. [In 19th Century Venice great numbers of beads for trading with Africa were made at the furnace and later decorated with flame working techniques.]

 

Subsequent developments led to an oil flame being used, its heat intensified by directing a small stream of air into the flame, initially from a tube inserted in the flame workers mouth and later from hand or foot operated bellows. Developments in scientific research in the 15th Century necessitated precise vessels unaffected by a variety of chemicals and of a specific shape and volume. This stimulated the advancements in techniques and equipment for flame worked glass.

 

Perhaps surprisingly, in 16th Century Europe there was awareness of deforestation and the large quantity of fuel required for furnace blowing. This stimulated a trend towards flame working smaller items that in turn allowed lower retail pricing resulting in a great number of glass items in homes. By the 18th Century there were localised industries across Europe producing small decorative items for the public. In France figurines of people and animals were produced until the early 20th Century in the town of Nevers. In Germany the village of Lauscha was devoted to the production of Christmas ornaments and in Italy the glass studios of Venice produced at the flame millefiori beads [a technique which produces distinctive decorative patterns]. The term is a combination of the Italian words “mille” (thousand) and “fiori” (flowers).

 

For the purpose of botanical study in the 1800’s actual plant specimens were pressed and dried, forgoing the original colour and three-dimensional form. This limitation was overcome by the use of replicas made from flame worked glass. In Germany from 1887 to 1936 Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka toiled at the flame producing 847 life-size models representing 780 species and varieties of plants from 164 botanical families as well as over 3,000 models of details such as enlargements of plant parts and anatomical sections. The major collection of their work, some 4,400 pieces was commissioned as a donation to Harvard University, then a centre of excellence in the study of matters botanical. Legend has it that when examined by US Customs the glass replicas were so convincing that they were classified as actual plant specimens and relegated to quarantine. Now internationally celebrated the collection is viewed by approximately 200,000 visitors annually.

 

Generally, lampworking is inherently more suited to smaller works than is the case with furnace working. The exception is large works made on a glass lathe that uses multiple flames, more often for industrial purposes. Individual artisans and medium sized production companies keep the world amply supplied with beads from the elegant to the superfluously decorated for any and all occasions. Often produced in India they are souvenir    

                               

 

  King of the Sea by Christian Arnold and Laurie Young.                                          Tango Phalaenopsis by Laurie Young.

 

  

favourites acquired in many countries with a firm handshake and promise by the vendor that they are the ultimate example of local custom. Artist or craftsperson flameworkers of beads fill classes, demonstrations and workshops to the brim, exponentially enhancing zeal for this passion. Bead making may underwrite many a flame working business with these morsels of colour and pattern.

 

The heady days of the 1960’s / 70’s witnessed contemporary glass entering art schools in many countries. Public and professional attention was drawn first by furnace workers then by kiln workers. Flameworkers were initially overshadowed but that would change. America was aided by the sharing of Venetian skills, particularly by master flameworkers Gianni Toso and Luccio Bubacco. Flame working is now a fully fledged partner in contemporary glass, exhibited in notable galleries and acquired by museums and acclaimed private collections.

 

Until the 1960’s Australian universities employed flame workers to fabricate chemistry equipment and whatever else might be needed. Imagine a group of glass pipes heated side by side until they joined and then one end stretched to virtually a needlepoint yet maintaining the hole in each pipe. A useful characteristic of glass is that the tiny holes in each pipe maintain the proportion of the original larger holes in the other end. Now nearly superseded Australian university flame working departments have all but vanished. Just three or four companies in Australia continue commercial flame working.

 

In New Zealand a comparable diminishment of university flame workers proceeds. Of the nine universities there are only five with flame workers. The studio glass artists and craftspeople have been somewhat a life preserver for traditional techniques as commercial production of handmade glass diminishes in Australia and comparable countries.

 

Boshan is one of the eminent glass making regions of China. With the vast contrasts of a rapidly developing country there are family operated glass factories of studio scale alongside major corporations. One smaller business is Zibo Aimei Glass Manufacturing that has both furnace blowing and flame working teams, each with less than fifteen key staff. A few minutes away is Shandong Hongda Glassware that uses up to 200 tonnes of glass a day to produce every conceivable domestic container utilizing both robotic technology and manual gathering from the furnace. In the last decade the government has paid high attention to the development of flame working and other glass making industries and provided annual government subsidies for glass artisans and further glass industry support. Flame worked glass products are very popular with the local population and almost every family owns some pieces. The Boshan flame working artisans endeavour to make their works true to life. The subjects are mainly vivid realistic flowers, fish, insects, birds, animals, cartoon and human characters. The China National Light Industry Association has granted the Boshan region two national honorary titles in flame working. There are a great number of technicians, artisans, workshops and factories engaged in flame working. Unsettling though it may be, all the smaller glass works available in Venice are now made in China.

 

Flame working has been taught in South Africa at Tshwane University since 1996. It has equal weighting with furnace, kiln and cold working course work. Graduates often continue as flameworkers as the technology and production costs are more manageable than those of the other techniques. The contemporary glass programme was developed as a result of an initiative and support from The Consol Group, the manufacturer of glass vessels in South Africa.

 

Between the 1960’s and the 1980’s in the city of Hsin Chu, near the western coast of Taiwan there was a substantial flame working industry producing export items of Christmas ornaments and decorative lighting. Demand withered and financial considerations led firms to export the remaining

 

                                  

             Cactus Garden by Peter Minson.                                                                     Seeing Red by Su Bishop.

 

Necklace by Susie Barnes.

Animal of Unknown Origin by Richard Clements.


employment to China. The glass industry in Hsin Chu has diversified with a few master flame workers making artistic and decorative works alongside glass casters and furnace blowers. The region remains renowned for its Glass Museum of Hsinchu City that hosts a biennial international glass festival.

 

In Australia exhibition quality flame worked glass has been championed by Kirra Galleries particularly with its annual FLAME ON GLASS exhibitions and public demonstrations from 2003 until the present. These events serve as a compendium of highly regarded practitioners, some of great experience, others having matured with the development of contemporary glass in Australia. These exhibitions include the works of many notable glass artists. When Australian glass artists formed the association, ‘Ausglass’ in the 1970’s there were few flameworkers. Richard Clements surprised many of the furnace blowing majority with his creative and adaptive use of flame techniques to produce works that well fitted the parameters of contemporary glass.

 

It has been said that to achieve art there must be three contributors, the artist, the critic and the gallery. Admittedly, a critic made this comment and others may disagree with the inextricability of that trinity but certainly artists are dependant upon galleries to expose and promote both individuals and their particular field of expression. Exhibitions such as FLAME ON GLASS are the stimulus for ever greater works. In the promotion of Australian and New Zealand contemporary glass artists, both flame workers and otherwise, Kirra Galleries has played its part resoundingly. Kirra has well supported its stable of artists both in Australia and internationally and been the oxygen fed into the artist’s flame, enhancing the heat, brightening the glow.

 

Dr. Gerry King

 

2017

 

 Light Dragon by Mark Eliott. Photo credit Pamela Lee Brenner and Johannes Muljana.

 

             

                 Life Forms by Cas Davey.                                                                Lotus 1 by Giselle Courtney.  .

                          

               Beetle by Raymond Mifsud.                                                        Eastern Rosella and Blue Gum by Kathryn Chaston

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BBBBB JJJBonsai by Peter Minson.

 

 

 

Bonsai by Peter Minson. 

Ocean Half Bead Neckpiece by Kathryn      

 

 

 

 

 

走进火中的世界

 杰瑞·金博士

 

  这眼前所展示的灯工玻璃制作过程,令观众深深地着迷于其中并为之感到惊叹不已,光辉炽热的火焰,持续不断的旋转与伸展,熔化后的玻璃液将两个部分完美地融合到了一起,间或的,玻璃制作者直接将空气吹入,原本实心的玻璃液瞬间就变成了一颗空心的玻璃泡。

火焰与玻璃对于灯工工匠来说应该有着相同的吸引力,有着一种与自然抗争的感觉,如同魔术师或者炼金术师。

  随着灯工技术的发展,灯工也产生了多种多样的名称。在澳大利亚、新西兰众多艺术家们不断的努力下,灯工领域得以持续地发展前行,并且与其他的玻璃技术、其他的材料一同实现创新。他们的作品,实心抑或空心,容器抑或雕塑,透明抑或彩色的,皆证明了艺术家们的高超技术,这对他们掌握好冷热、快慢、迟早之间的平衡点有很高的要求。这些技艺非常之复杂并且来之不易。

  灯工匠人需要持续不断地抵消玻璃在高温火焰下软化而产生的重力。火焰的强度是变化的,根据需要可以将玻璃移动到更热或者更凉的区域,当达到所需的软化程度时,玻璃就可以离开火焰。如同马戏团演员走钢丝一般,灯工匠人必须在没有帮助的情况下在各方面做好协调工作。灯工匠人一般都是独自工作,通常是在没有机械辅助设备的情况下进行持续不断的旋转操作。技艺高超的工匠所展现出的旋转动作,看起来毫不费力,并且十分优雅。这种轻松自如的操作实际上展现出了工匠技艺的精湛。

   是高超的技艺带来的艺术吗?先不管技艺,先看看这画面,看看艺术家在玻璃中渗入的独特意义,看看玻璃这种神奇的材料以及充满挑逗性又有潜在毁灭性的火焰。但对于学生来说,可能不是这样的。当他们在火焰中制作一件玻璃作品时,比较容易的部分就是掌握技术。

  专业的灯工技术可以通过频繁重复的训练而习得,对玻璃材料的理解也是如此,而其中最难的部分就在于“将艺术注入玻璃中”。并不是说不需要熟练、毅力以及能够察觉玻璃在承受着重力作用以及火焰的魅惑运动中微小差别的能力。艺术的创造是通过培养偶然性,需要识别出用来补充美学情境还未完成构思设想之前的加法、减法或者修改等方法。只有在艺术品完成之后,艺术家才能完全理解自己的作品。

  试着把艺术创作当作一次生命的孕育。这其中有许多精确的要求,但受孕并不能取决于训练与技术。艺术,如同一个孩子一样会沿着自己的道路走向成熟,可以被培育但并非完全可预见。父母或许能预见孩子的某些特征,但是其他的部分将会在妊娠期进行自我发育。

起初,艺术家有自己的计划,但是艺术品却是在制作过程中发掘出来的。正如拿破仑曾经为下一场战争选择一位指挥官时所说的一句名言,“我知道他是一个好将军,但他是幸运的那一个吗?”将军就像艺术家一样需要的不止是技术。从工匠升级为艺术家,需要的是他人不能及的敏感度,以及透过作品的图像元素而将一种思想内容渗透其中的能力。 正如一个故事不仅仅是一串字符的集合一般,一件艺术品也不仅仅是所有元素的构成,从某种程度上说,它包含着同一个故事一样可以被读懂的主题。【考虑到全世界对于“艺术”并没有一个统一的定义,因此我在上述文中指出了一个用于区别一件作品是不是艺术品的最基本的条件。】

  在了解了技术并非艺术之后,我们应该还要认识到灯工玻璃技术或者事实上任何现代玻璃的使用都不是独立的。所有的艺术媒介都是如此,单用技术来表现主题并不能使一个画匠成为一名艺术家。技术当然是在制作工艺品中最常使用的部分,事实上许多艺术家拥有最高水平的能力去操作他们的媒介,技术和意图并不是用来定义或者认可一件艺术品的标准。不可否认的是,艺术家们需要频繁地使用技术,并且在灯工大师制作过程中,技术的重要性不言而喻,包括避免灾难,在高温下操作热玻璃,持续地旋转作品以免像扑火的飞蛾一般成为火焰的牺牲品。

  然而,单靠技术并不能让一件作品成为艺术品,同时艺术也绝不能完全依赖于技术。二十世纪的西方艺术曾受到早期欧洲著名画家弱化技术的影响。Franz Kline用一把扫帚将颜料扫到画布上,Jackson Pollock用手指轻弹、泼溅颜料,Picasso(毕加索)将部分技术外包给陶工,陶工先做好模型之后,毕加索在此基础上推、拉、画。这并不是说一件工艺品可以在没有技术的情况下完成。一个技术不到家的灯工制作者完成一件作品是很有可能的,但用料原则要求非常高,需要完美掌握玻璃的控制技术,才能带来构想和制作艺术品的条件。总之,艺术品的创作来自于巧妙的构思而非熟练的手艺。

  这也并不是说所有的展示作品都打算或者注定成为艺术。多数是工艺品,构思巧妙,完美制造。这些工艺品的基本价值在于它们是在超高的手工艺技术下完成的,而非蕴含着某种主题思想。尽管从二十世纪六十年代开始,看起来无止境的“艺术与工艺的战争”一直挥之不去,但对于艺术家与手工艺人之间的相互尊重是可以实现的。甚至,一个个体时常扮演两个角色。这样的情形并不少见,作者用手工艺品来巩固增强经济活力,另一方面用艺术品来滋养技艺。有时存在一种所谓的等级制度,手工艺排名于艺术之后,有时设计排于二者之间。但更合理的说法是,二者皆有各自的价值,皆有各自的顶峰。

  灯工是一门古老的技术,比书中记载的还要早,而且在古今大型玻璃厂的存货清单上都有记录。如今的灯工做法是使用灯头,以液化石油气为燃料,以氧气加强辅助燃烧硼硅酸盐玻璃或者软玻璃。小件作品或者石英玻璃使用的是液化石油气和氢气。最早的灯工技术可能使用的是锥形陶瓷灯罩装来控制火焰,使火焰集中在工作区域,然后从底部抽取空气以提高温度。这种方法被认为是在公元前3000年埃及人在制作玻璃珠时使用的。类似的设备也被发现于2000年前的北非及日本地区,灯工制作的玻璃珠在罗马时期十分盛行。从14世纪开始,灯工技艺与窑炉制作在穆拉诺岛被广泛应用。【19世纪,威尼斯与非洲进行贸易的大量玻璃珠是用窑炉制作的,后来才渐渐地与灯工技术相结合。】

  之后渐渐发展出一种使用油灯加热的方法,最初是灯工匠人用嘴叼着管子向火焰吹气以升高温度,后来发展成用手或者脚来操作。15世纪科研的发展让那些不受各种化学物质、特定形状和体积影响的精确器皿的出现成为必然,它同时也促进了灯工技术和设备的进步与发展。

  或许令人惊讶的是,16世纪的欧洲,森林采伐逐渐兴起,人们也意识到窑炉吹制需要大量的燃料。这促进了灯工玻璃朝着制造更小件物品的方向发展,更低的零售价格反过来也促进了大量家居玻璃物品的生产。到了18世纪,欧洲各地出现了本土化的产业,为公众生产小型玻璃装饰物品。直到20世纪初期,在法国Nevers小镇生产出了人物、动物塑像的玻璃摆件。在德国一个叫lauscha的乡村,全村人都致力于生产圣诞节装饰品,意大利威尼斯的玻璃工作室使用灯工生产千花玻璃珠【这是一种用来制作多种花色玻璃的技术】。“千花玻璃”这个词是由意大利语“mille(千)”和“fiori(花)”两个字组成的。

1800年代曾有个植物学研究,将植物样本压缩、脱水,在原色和3D形式之前。这个限制随着灯工玻璃制作的复制品的使用而得以突破。1887年到1936年德国的Leopold Rudolf Blaschka二人辛勤地致力于灯工制作出847件原型大小的模型以代表780种物种以及来自于164个植物家族中的各种植物,还有超过3000件局部细节模型,比如有放大版的植株部位,局部解剖面等。这些作品的大部分,其中4400件被委托捐献给哈佛大学,那里有一个关于植物学的卓越研究基地。据说,由于这些玻璃复制品太逼真了,以至于美国海关在检查的时候,将之认定为真实的植物样本,并归入需要检验检疫的类别中。而今每年大约有20万的游客来参观这些作品。

  通常来说,灯工工艺比窑制技术更适合制作小型作品。但也有例外,比如使用多头火焰在玻璃加工车床上制作的大件作品,这种更多地应用于工业上。许多独立的手艺人和中型玻璃生产企业为世界生产了丰富多样的玻璃珠,以供各种场合装饰使用,从简约优雅的装饰乃至铺张浪费型的装饰。通常生产于印度的玻璃珠在许多国家都是比较受欢迎的纪念品,小贩会信誓旦旦地保证这绝对是当地土特产的首选。制作灯工玻璃珠的艺术家或者手工艺人们将这个行业中的阶层、展示以及工作室塞得满满当当,以迅猛的速度来增强对其的热情。仅用这一点色彩与图案制作的玻璃珠也许可以为许多人做灯工生意提供资金支持与保障。

  在二十世纪六七十年代,这个热血沸腾的年代见证了许多国家的现代玻璃走进艺术学校。公众以及专家的目光先后被炉匠、窑匠所吸引。因而灯工匠人开始被盖过风头,但情况仍会改变。因威尼斯技术的共享,美国灯工技术得以发展。如今灯工技术在现代玻璃中已发展得十分成熟,众多灯工作品被收藏于著名的画廊、博物馆以及私人收藏者手中。

  直到1960s年代,澳大利亚的许多大学开始雇佣灯工匠人制造化学设备以及所需的其他设备。想像一下,一堆玻璃管紧挨着被加热熔化到一起,一端被拉伸至几乎如针尖一般细,但同时每根玻璃管还能保留着孔洞。玻璃的一个实用特性是,细玻璃管上小孔的比例仍然能与原来另一端大孔的比例保持一致。如今,澳洲大学里那些过时的灯工系几近消失。只有三四个公司仍在澳洲继续生产销售灯工制品。

  在新西兰,有相当数量的大学灯工匠人仍在不断缩减。九个大学里只剩下5位灯工匠人。随着手工玻璃商业化生产在澳洲以及类似国家中的不断减少,那些有独立工作室的玻璃艺术家以及手艺人某种程度上可以算是传统技艺的救命稻草了。

  博山是中国著名的玻璃(琉璃)制造中心。与中国迅猛发展之势形成鲜明对比的是,这里的玻璃(琉璃)企业既有小型家庭式工作室也有与世界市场接轨的大规模企业。其中一家淄博爱美琉璃制造有限公司同时拥有热成型吹制以及灯工制作团队,各有约15名主力干将。还有一家山东宏达玻璃制品有限公司,采用世界先进的机械化设备生产与传统手工工艺相结合进行操作,每日生产制造200吨左右的日用玻璃器皿,系列产品达3000余种。近年来,当地政府高度重视包括灯工技术在内的琉璃产业的发展,每年为玻璃(琉璃)行业的从业者发放政府奖励津贴,并为琉璃行业提供更多的政策支持。灯工琉璃工艺品在当地十分受欢迎,几乎每家每户都有数件。博山灯工艺人努力使其作品做到生动逼真,栩栩如生,创作主题多以花鸟鱼虫、飞禽走兽、卡通人物等为主。中国轻工业联合会与中国日用玻璃协会曾授予博山灯工行业两项国家级荣誉称号,“中国石榴王”与“中国琉璃葡萄孙”。此外,博山仍有许多技师、工匠、工作室与企业在从事着灯工琉璃制作。尽管可能但令人不安的是,如今在威尼斯可购得的小件玻璃制品皆为中国制造。

  自1996年起,南非茨瓦尼大学开始教授灯工技术,其与炉制、窑制玻璃、冷加工玻璃等课程并重。大多数的毕业生通常会继续从事灯工制作,因为灯工技术以及生产费用比其他技术更加可控。 Consol (康索尔)集团是南非玻璃容器的一家制造商,因其发起的计划与支持,南非现代玻璃项目得以发展。

  新竹市,位于台湾西部海岸地区,在1960s到1980s年代之间,曾兴起一阵灯工制造业的发展,主要生产用于出口的圣诞节装饰品与灯饰等产品。由于市场需求的萎缩以及财务上的考虑,大多企业被迫将剩余的工作转移到中国大陆。新竹的玻璃行业已经实现多样化,拥有制作艺术性与装饰性作品的灯工大师、玻璃铸造师以及玻璃吹制大师等。新竹市还因新竹玻璃博物馆每两年举办一次“新竹国际玻璃艺术节”而著名。

  在澳大利亚,大多展览级品质的灯工玻璃作品受到基拉画廊的大力支持,特别是其从2003年至今举办的一年一度的灯工玻璃展以及许多公开展示活动。这些活动囊括了众多受到高度赞誉的玻璃行业从业者,一些拥有着丰富的经验,其他的随着澳大利亚现代玻璃的发展得以不断地成熟。这些展览展出了许多著名玻璃艺术家的作品。当澳洲玻璃艺术家于1970s年代成立Ausglass这个组织时,当时的灯工玻璃工匠是极其少有的。Richard Clements曾惊讶于大多数的玻璃吹制工以其高度的创造性与适应性,使用灯工技术生产出符合现代玻璃性能参数的作品。

  有个说法是,要实现艺术必须有三方参与者,艺术家、评论家以及画廊。诚然,评论家作此评论,其他人可能不认可三方关系不可分割的说法,但实际上艺术家们确实需要依靠画廊来曝光并宣传个体及其独特领域的思想表达。如基拉举办的灯工玻璃展此类的展览能够刺激、促进更多更好的作品出现。在对澳洲以及新西兰现代玻璃艺术家的宣传推广上,无论是灯工行业还是其他方面的,基拉画廊都扮演了绝对重要的角色。基拉画廊为澳洲及其他国家的艺术家提供了良好而稳定的支持,如同氧气一般注入艺术家的火焰中,增强热度,让火焰更加绚丽夺目。

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       杰瑞·金博士

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2017年

 

 

 

 

Gerry King

Gerry King is an artist and designer specializing in contemporary glass. His work is exhibited, collected and published internationally.  It is held in twenty public collections worldwide.  He holds seven academic awards in art and education culminating in a Doctor of Creative Arts.  In the 1980's, with others he developed the Glass Studies degree at the University of South Australia.  He is engaged as a consultant, author, workshop leader and conference lecturer internationally.  In 2016 he was the guest lecturer at the Boshan Glass Festival.

 

It was published by Kirra Galleries, Melbourne Australia.

They did that on connection with a flame glass festival they have each year.

It is called Flame on Glass.

Into the Flame has the  ... ISBN 978-0-646-97393-7

It is an international catalogue system to record writing that is published.

 

 

 

杰瑞·金

 

杰瑞·金是一位专注于当代玻璃艺术的艺术家、设计师。他的作品被收藏、展览于世界各地的20多个公共藏馆。他在艺术与教育领域中获得了7项学术大奖,并且最终取得“创意艺术博士”学位。在20世纪80年代,杰瑞·金与其他人一同为南澳大学开创设置了玻璃研究学位。他同时身兼数职,是国际性的顾问、作者、工作室领头人、会议讲师等。2016年杰瑞·金曾作为特约讲师参加了第五届中国(博山)琉璃文化艺术节。

 

澳大利亚墨尔本的基拉画廊每年举办一次名为Flame on Glass”的灯工玻璃艺术节,基于此,本文由基拉画廊特约撰稿出版。文章Into the Flame的国际标准书号是ISBN 978-0-646-97393-7。ISBN是专门为识别图书等文献而设计的国际编号。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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